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LS 201/489: Introduction to Research: Research + Citations

This is a guide on how to find peer reviewed articles, evaluating sources, and conducting research within the library, for LS 201: Sophomore Seminar.

Purdue OWL, Helpful Resources + Research Books



The in-text reference that gives brief details (author, date, page) of the source you are quoting or referring to. This citation corresponds with the full details of the work (title, publisher, etc) given in your reference list or bibliography, so that the reader can identify and/or find the source.


A list of references at the end of your paper that includes the full information for your citations so that the reader can easily identify and retrieve each work (journal articles, books, webpages, etc).  Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.


A list of works you have consulted for your paper, but not cited in the Reference List. Works should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. 

Always check the guidance you are given for your research paper to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. 


Highlighted Citation Manager: Zotero

Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages. Zotero automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for.

Zotero has a Chrome Extension that allows easy addition of web content to your Zotero library.

More info on the button's functionality here.

The Zotero Style Repository allows you to import citation styles that might not be pre-loaded.

Popular citation styles in Physics: 


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Citation Managers

What is a Citation Manager? 
A Citation Manager is simply a piece of software, website, or browser extension that can help you organize the papers you have used for research. It keeps track of the citations (so the author, title, date, etc) of each paper, and allows you to then plug each citation into your Reference List. Some of them even allow very specific citations styles for different disciplines (like AIP for physics) instead of the more common APA and MLA styles.

Citeulike is a free service for managing and discovering scholarly references.

EndNote Basic is the free version of the popular reference software. Features storage for up to 50,000 references, the 20 most popular bibliographic styles, and 2GB of file storage.

Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research in your field

ReadCube is a free desktop and browser-based program for managing, annotating, and accessing academic research articles

RefWorks is web-based bibliographic software that enables you to organize your research, include citations while you write your paper, build a bibliography in a variety of formats, import references from many data sources, and create bibliographies in different document formats (Word, RTF, HTML, etc.).

Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages. Zotero automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for.

APA Citation Format -- References


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Online Journal 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from

Other citation formats, including those for other resources, can be found at the Purdue OWL website

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