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EP 342: Materials Science: Semi-Conductors

Connects students in PHYS 342 with information on Materials Science and resources in the library.

Silicon

Silicon
in latin: silex


Structure


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
Boiling point   3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density near r.t.   2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 383 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J/(mol·K)

Applications

-building materials

-ceramics and glass

-artificial silicon compounds

Gallium Arsenide

Gallium Arsenide
Compound of the elements gallium and arsenic


Structure


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 1,238 °C (2,260 °F; 1,511 K)
Boiling point    
Density near r.t.   5.3176 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.  
Heat of fusion  
Heat of vaporization  
Molar heat capacity  

Applications

-solar cells and detectors
-light-emission devices
-fiber optic temperature measurement
-spin-charge converters

Gallium Phosphide

Gallium Phosphide


Structure


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 1,477 °C (2,691 °F; 1,750 K)
Solubility in water     insoluble
Density near r.t.   4.138 g/cm3
Band gap 2.26 eV (300 K)
Electron mobility 250 cm2/(V*s) (300 K)
Thermal conductivity 1.1 W/(cm*K) (300 K)
Refractive index

3.02 (2.48 µm), 3.19 (840 nm), 3.45 (550 nm), 4.30 (262 nm)


Applications

-LED lights (infared)

Indium

Indium


Structure 

 


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
Boiling point                2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density near r.t.          7.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    7.02 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               3.281 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity    26.74 J/(mol·K)


Applications
-Electronics, metal and alloys

Zinc Sulfide

Zinc Sulfide



Structure 

 


Properties

Chemical formula ZnS
Molar mass 97.474 g/mol
Density 4.090 g/cm3
Melting point 1,185 °C (2,165 °F; 1,458 K) (sublime)
Solubility in water negligible
Band gap 3.54 eV (cubic, 300 K)
3.91 eV (hexagonal, 300 K)

Applications

-Luminescent material

-optical material

-pigment

-catalyst

Aluminum Gallium Arsenide

Aluminum Gallium Arsenide

 


Structure

 


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 1,238 °C (2,260 °F; 1,511 K)
Solubility in water     insoluble
Density near r.t.   5.3176 g/cm3
Band gap 1.441 eV (at 300 K)
Electron mobility 9000 cm2/(V·s) (at 300 K)
Thermal conductivity 0.56 W/(cm·K) (at 300 K)
Refractive index 3.3

Applications

-Barrier material in laser diodes

-monolithic microwave integrated circuits

-solar cells 

-optical windows

Boron Arsenide

Boron Arsenide


Structure


Properties

Chemical formula BAs or B12As2
Molar mass 85.733 g/mol
Density 5.22 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 2,027 °C (3,681 °F; 2,300 K)
Solubility in water Insoluble
Band gap 1.50 eV(BAs); 3.47 eV(B12As2)

Applications

-Solar cell fabrication

CZTS

CZTS
Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide 

 


Structure


Properties

Chemical formula Cu2ZnSnS4
Molar mass 439.471 g/mol
Appearance Greenish black crystals
Density 4.56 g/cm3
Melting point 990 °C (1,810 °F; 1,260 K)
Band gap 1.4–1.5 eV

Applications

-Development of solar cells

PZT

PZT
Lead Zirconate Titante


Structure


Properties

Chemical formula Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 (0≤x≤1)
Molar mass 303.065 to 346.4222 g/mol

Applications

-Ultrasound transducers, sensors, actuators, high-value ceramic capacitators, FRAM chips, ceramic resonators

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