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PHYS 342: Materials Science: Metals

Connects students in PHYS 342 with information on Materials Science and resources in the library.

Iron

Iron 
in latin: ferrum


Structure

 

 

 

 


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point  1811 K ​(1538 °C, ​2800 °F)
Boiling point   3134 K ​(2862 °C, ​5182 °F)
Density near r.t.   7.874 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.98 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 340 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.10 J/(mol·K)

Applications

-Medical / Biomedical

Surgical instruments and magnetic resonance imaging

-Industrial Engineering

Bridges, steel girders, and machinery


Iron Nanoparticles

Highly reactive, potent, magnetic, and catalytic.

Nickel

Nickel
in latin: niccolum


Structure


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Boiling point   3003 K ​(2730 °C, ​4946 °F)
Density near r.t.   8.908 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 379 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity

26.07 J/(mol·K)

Resists corrosion even at high temperatures.


Applications

-Manufacturing Engineering

Toasters and ovens (withstand heat)

-Industrial Engineering

Batteries


Nickel Nanoparticles

Available as nanofluid and in passivated, ultra high purity, high purity, coated, and dispersed forms. Learn more about nickel here.

Lead

Lead
in latin:
plumbum

Books on Lead in Kettering's library


Structure


Properties

Phase solid

Melting point 600.61 K ​(327.46 °C, ​621.43 °F)
Boiling point   2022 K ​(1749 °C, ​3180 °F)
Density near r.t.   11.34 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.66 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 179.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.650 J/(mol·K)

Applications

-Industrial Manufacturing

Car batteries (lining) and pipes

-Electrical Engineering

Some solders and in gasoline


Lead Nanoparticles

Used in lead acid, valve regulated lead acid batteries and lithium secondary batteries and nanoscale electronic devices. Learn more about lead here.

Zinc

Zinc
in latin: zincum


Structure


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              692.68 K ​(419.53 °C, ​787.15 °F)
Boiling point                1180 K ​(907 °C, ​1665 °F)
Density near r.t.          7.14 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    6.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               7.32 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    115 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity    25.470 J/(mol·K)


Applications

-Mechanical Engineering

Zinc galvanizes metals in manufacturing car bodies and suspension bridges.

-Medical

Zinc oxide is used in pharmaceuticals. Zinc sulfide is used in making fluorescent lights and x-ray screens.


Zinc Nanoparticles

Tiny but powerful; highly catalytic.

Copper

Copper
in latin: cuprum 


Structure 

 


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              1357.77 K ​(1084.62 °C, ​1984.32 °F)
Boiling point                2835 K ​(2562 °C, ​4643 °F)
Density near r.t.          8.96 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    8.02 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               13.26 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    300.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity    24.440 J/(mol·K)

Good conductor of electricity, does not react with water


Applications

-Industrial Engineering

Water Pipes (low reactivity)

-Electrical Engineering

Wires (good conductor)

The brass used in electrical fittings is 70% copper and 30% zinc

From common household electrical wiring to boat propellers and from photovoltaic cells to saxophones, copper and its alloys are employed in a myriad of end uses. In fact, the metal's use in a wide-range of core industries has resulted in the investment community turning to copper prices as an indicator of overall economic health, spurring the moniker "Dr. Copper."  

Learn more about copper and its various applications here.  


Copper Nanoparticles

Application research is ongoing to discover the potential dielectric, magnetic, electrical, optical, imaging, catalytic, biomedical and bioscience properties of copper nanoparticles. 

Platinum

Platinum
in latin: platinum 


Structure

 


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Boiling point                4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density near r.t.         21.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity   25.86 J/(mol·K)

Suspended in water


Applications

- Industrial Engineering

Catalytic converters (combustion)

-Industrial Manufacturing Engineering

Textiles, jewelry, and decoration

-Medical / Biomedical

Dental work, medications


Platinum Nanoparticles

Used in magnetic nanopowders, polymer membranes, and cancer therapy. Learn more about platinum here.

Silver

Silver
in latin: argentum 


Structure



Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              1234.93 K ​(961.78 °C, ​1763.2 °F)
Boiling point                2435 K ​(2162 °C, ​3924 °F)
Density near r.t.          10.49 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    9.320 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               11.28 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity    25.350 J/(mol·K)


Applications

-Industrial Manufacturing

High capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries, solder, brazing alloys, and electrical contacts

-Medical / Biomedical

Dental alloys; silver nitrate is used in oral medicines

-Industrial Manufacturing Engineering

Textiles like the fingertips of gloves used with touchscreen phones and in clothing to prevent some odors


Silver Nanoparticles

Ductile, malleable

Gold

Gold
in latin: aurum 


Structure


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point              1337.33 K ​(1064.18 °C, ​1947.52 °F)
Boiling point                3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density near r.t.         19.30 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    17.31 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               12.55 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    342 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity   25.418 J/(mol·K)

Very good conductor of electricity, unreactive 


Applications

-Electrical Engineering

Connections on circuit boards (conductivity)

-Industrial Manufacturing Engineering

Jewelry (lack of reactivity)

18 carat gold, used in jewelry, is 75% gold and 25% copper and other metals


Gold Nanoparticles

Help to detect breast cancer, toxins, and pathogens in patients. Learn more about the uses of gold here.

Aluminum

Aluminum
in latin: alumen


Structure


Properties

Phase solid
Melting point                933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Boiling point                2743 K ​(2470 °C, ​4478 °F)
Density near r.t.          2.70 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.    2.375 g/cm3
Heat of fusion               10.71 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization    284 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity    24.20 J/(mol·K)

Low density, does not corrode


Applications

-Industrial Manufacturing

Airplane bodies

Duralumin, used in aircraft manufacture, is 96% aluminum and 4% copper and other metals


Nano Aluminum

Nanoparticle research is an area of strong scientific interest due to the variety of potential applications in optical, biomedical, and electronic fields. In the last 10 years, aluminium/aluminum nanoparticles have been widely researched and used, primarily because of their increased reactivity as compared with conventional micron-sized particle.

Learn about nano aluminum here

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