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PHYS 342: Materials Science: Ceramics

Connects students in PHYS 342 with information on Materials Science and resources in the library.

Aluminum Oxide

Aluminum Oxide

Also called: 
-alumina
-aloxide
-aloxite
-alundum


Structure

Crystal structure: Trigonal, hR30, space group= R3c, No. 167
Lattice constant: a = 478.5 pm, c = 1299.1 pm
Coordination geometry: octahedral 


Properties

Chemical formula Al2O3
Molar mass  101.96 g·mol−1
Appearance     white solid
Odor   odorless
Density  3.95–4.1 g/cm3
Melting point   2,072 °C (3,762 °F; 2,345 K)
Boiling point   2,977 °C (5,391 °F; 3,250 K)
Solubility in water  insoluble
Solubility

insoluble in diethyl ether
practically insoluble inethanol

Thermal conductivity  

30 W·m−1·K−1

Refractive index 

nω=1.768–1.772
nε=1.760–1.763
Birefringence 0.008


Applications

-Electrical Engineering

Insulation

-Industrial Engineering

Airplane bodies

-Mechanical Engineering

Fillers

Cement

Cement


Structure

Image result for atomic structure of cement"


Properties

-Setting time
-soundness
-fineness
-strength


Applications

-Industrial Manufacturing

Bridges, pillars, columns, archways

-Medical / Biomedical

Orthoses

Porcelain

Porcelain


Structure

Image result for structure of porcelain"


Properties

-low permeability and elasticity

-considerable strength, hardness, toughness, whiteness, translucency, resonance

-high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock


Applications

-Medical / Biomedical

Dentistry: veneers

-Industrial Manufacturing

Concrete (paired with residue)

Silicone Dioxide

Silicone Dioxide
Common name: glass


Structure 


Properties

Chemical formula         SiO2

Molar mass                  60.08 g/mol

Appearance                  Transparent solid

Density                           2.648 (α-quartz), 2.196 (amorphous) g·cm−3

Melting point                  1,713 °C (3,115 °F; 1,986 K) (amorphous)

Boiling point                  2,950 °C (5,340 °F; 3,220 K)

Thermal conductivity      12 (|| c-axis), 6.8 (⊥ c-axis), 1.4 (am.) W/(m⋅K)

Refractive index            1.544 (o), 1.553 (e)

Most glass is a mixture of silica obtained from beds of fine sand or from pulverized sandstone; an alkali to lower the melting point, usually a form of soda or, for finer glass, potash; lime as a stabilizer; and cullet (waste glass) to assist in melting the mixture.

The properties of glass are varied by adding other substances, commonly in the form of oxides, e.g., lead, for brilliance and weight; boron, for thermal and electrical resistance; barium, to increase the refractive index, as in optical glass; cerium, to absorb infrared rays; metallic oxides, to impart color; and manganese, for decolorizing.

The term "crystal glass," derived from rock crystal, was at first applied to clear, highly refractive glass; it has come to denote in the trade a high-grade, colorless glass and is sometimes applied to any fine hand-blown glass.


Applications

Scientists at the University of Southampton are using nanostrucutured glass to develop the recording and retrieval processes of five dimensional (5D) digital data by femtosecond laser writing, which may be capable of surviving for billions of years. More information can be found here

From Chemical & Engineering News: Opening and Closing Nano Venetian Blinds
Researchers led by Soroush Shabahang and Ayman F. Abouraddy at the University of Central Florida are making nanoparticles with their bare hands––and some crafty materials science. To create uniform micro- and nanoscale structures, the team is simply stretching fibers and sheets made from a ductile polymer composite containing either a brittle core or coating (Nature 2016, DOI: 10.1038/nature17980).

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium Dioxide


Structure

 


Properties

Chemical formula        TiO2

Molar mass                  79.866 g/mol

Appearance                  White solid

Odor                                 odorless

Density                           4.23 g/cm3 (Rutile), 3.78 g/cm3 (Anatase)

Melting point                  1,843 °C (3,349 °F; 2,116 K)

Boiling point                  2,972 °C (5,382 °F; 3,245 K)

Solubility in water         insoluble

Band gap                        3.05 eV (rutile)

Refractive index            2.488 (anatase), 2.583 (brookite), 2.609 (rutile)


Applications

-Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

Textiles and dyes

-Medical / Biomedical

Whiskers for drug delivery application to tumors in patients. Read more about it here.

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