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PHYS 354: Medical Physics Principles: Physics Citations

Course guide for students in PHYS 354 to help with research into Medical Physics.

Medical Physics Citation Style

Citations should be done in the format style of the journal Medical Physics.

They provide examples on their Information for Authors page

Read Open Access articles from Medical Physics here at the National Library of Medicine.




The in-text reference that gives brief details (author, date, page) of the source you are quoting or referring to. This citation corresponds with the full details of the work (title, publisher, etc) given in your reference list or bibliography, so that the reader can identify and/or find the source. 

The Medical Physics style uses a numerical superscript in-text that corresponds to the Reference List.


A list of references at the end of your paper that includes the full information for your citations so that the reader can easily identify and retrieve each work (journal articles, books, webpages, etc).  Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.

The Medical Physics style lists publications in the order they appeared in the text.


A list of works you have consulted for your paper, but not cited in the Reference List. Works should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. 

Always check the guidance you are given for your research paper to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. 

Citation Style


In-text citations are numerical references, in superscript1, numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text. The Reference List orders publications in the order they appeared in the text.  Titles of articles, complete lists of authors, and inclusive pagination must be included. References must be in the accessible, archival literature. 

Author names are as they appear in the original article; journal names are abbreviated; the journal volume is in bold, followed by the pages of article and year in parentheses.  

References should be appear in the following formats:


The microstructure evolution and effects of He bubbles inside matrix metals and metal tritides are of both fundamental and technological interest in the studies of the aging of nuclear-materials1 and radition.2  The nuclei transmutation either through nuclear reactions between energetic particles and nucleus or through decay of tritium released from metal tritides produces He isotope.3


1G. Kürbitz, “Electro-optic imaging,” in The Optics Encyclopedia: Basic Foundations and Practical Applications, Vol. 1, edited by Th.G. Brown, K. Creath, H. Kogelnik, M.A. Kriss, J. Schmit, M.J. Weber (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004), pp. 549-585.

2G. Pang and J.A. Rowlands, “X-ray imaging: A novel direct-conversion design and its feasibility,” Med. Phys. 31, 3004-3016 (2004).

3W.R. Hendee, G.S. Ibbott, E.G. Hendee, Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2004).

Citation Managers + Zotero

What is a Citation Manager? 
A Citation Manager is simply a piece of software, website, or browser extension that can help you organize the papers you have used for research. It keeps track of the citations (so the author, title, date, etc) of each paper, and allows you to then plug each citation into your Reference List. Some of them even allow very specific citations styles for different disciplines (like AIP for physics) instead of the more common APA and MLA styles.

Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages. Zotero automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for.

Zotero has a Chrome Extension that allows easy addition of web content to your Zotero library.

More info on the button's functionality here.

The Zotero Style Repository allows you to import citation styles that might not be pre-loaded.

Popular citation styles in Physics: 

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