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PHYS 354: Medical Physics Principles: Physics Citations

Course guide for students in PHYS 354 to help with research into Medical Physics.

Medical Physics Citation Style

Citations should be done in the format style of the journal Medical Physics.

They provide examples on their Information for Authors page

Read a sample issue of the Medical Physics journal here.

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Definitions

CITATIONS

The in-text reference that gives brief details (author, date, page) of the source you are quoting or referring to. This citation corresponds with the full details of the work (title, publisher, etc) given in your reference list or bibliography, so that the reader can identify and/or find the source. 

The Medical Physics style uses a numerical superscript in-text that corresponds to the Reference List.


REFERENCE LIST

A list of references at the end of your paper that includes the full information for your citations so that the reader can easily identify and retrieve each work (journal articles, books, webpages, etc).  Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.

The Medical Physics style lists publications in the order they appeared in the text.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

A list of works you have consulted for your paper, but not cited in the Reference List. Works should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. 

Always check the guidance you are given for your research paper to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. 

References

Quoted from Author Guidelines - Last Updated 8/15/2018

References should follow standard American Medical Association (AMA) Style. Do not alphabetize references; assign consecutive numbers as references are cited in the body of the text. Use superscript numbers for in-text citations. Provide the full reference list at the end of the text, using base-aligned numbers followed by a period. Full titles of articles, complete lists of authors, and inclusive pagination must be included. Do not use reference citation superscripts as parts of speech when discussing referenced material; this includes constructions such as " . . . in [5] . . . " or "Reference [10] states . . . ." References must be in the accessible, archival literature. “Private Communications” and commercial identifications and manuals are not appropriate for the reference list but can be identified as footnotes to the text. References should appear in the following formats from the AMA Manual of Style:

Journal article (1-6 authors):

1. Hu P, Reuben DB. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with physicians during ambulatory visits. Med Care.2002;40(7):606-613.

Journal article with more than six authors:

1. Geller AC, Venna S, Prout M, et al. Should the skin cancer examination be taught in medical school?Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(9):1201-1203.

Journal article with no named author or group name:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Licensure of a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menveo) and guidance for use--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(9):273.

Electronic Journal article:
If you have a doi (preferred):
1. Gage BF, Fihn SD, White RH. Management and dosing of warfarin therapy. The American Journal of Medicine. 2000;109(6):481-488. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3.

If you do not have a doi:
1. Aggleton JP. Understanding anterograde amnesia: disconnections and hidden lesions. Q J Exp Psychol. 2008;61(10):1441-1471. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pbh&AN=34168185&site=ehost-live Accessed March 18, 2010.

Journal article published online ahead of print:

1. Chau NG, Haddad RI. Antiangiogenic agents in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: tired of going solo [published online ahead of print September 20, 2016]. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30352.

Entire Book:

1. McKenzie BC. Medicine and the Internet: Introducing Online Resources and Terminology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1997.

Book Chapter:

1. Guyton JL, Crockarell JR. Fractures of acetabulum and pelvis. In: Canale ST, ed. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, Inc; 2003:2939-2984.

Website:

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2003PWSecured.pdf. Accessed March 3, 2003.
NOTE:

  • If there are more than 6 author names in a reference, the first 3 author names are retained with “et al” (set in roman).
  • The article title is set in roman and sentence case.
  • The journal title is set in italics and abbreviated with a period at the end of the title only and not for all abbreviated terms.
  • A semicolon is used between the year of publication and the volume number.
  • A colon is used between the volume number and the page range.
  • The full page range is used. - Set a period at the end of a reference.
  • The place of publication is given first followed by publisher name.
  • The year of publication is given after the publisher name, separated by a semicolon.
  • The date of last access is required for Website citations.
  • The chapter title is set in roman and sentence case.
  • The book title is set in italics and title case.

A list of standard abbreviations for journal names appears in the AIP Style Manual. Additionally, potential authors can use software tools to format references correctly and abide by the Journal’s guidelines. Such a tool is Endnote, developed by Thomson Scientific, which can be accessed here. Authors are urged to exclude unnecessary and/or incomplete references.

Citation Examples

GUIDELINES

In-text citations are numerical references, in superscript1, numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text. The REFERENCES section orders publications in the order they appeared in the text. Titles of articles, complete lists of authors, and inclusive pagination must be included. References must be in the accessible, archival literature. Author first names are abbreviated, journal names are abbreviated,the journal title is italicized, and followed by year;volume:page-range. You can also find more American Institute of Physics (AIP) style examples from Monash University Library online.


Citation examples listed are from Dynamic collimator trajectory algorithm for multiple metastases dynamicconformal arc treatment planning by R. Lee MacDonald, Christopher G. Thomas, and Alasdair Syme. Demonstrated here for educational purposes only.

IN-TEXT CITATION

In previous research, the inclusion of couch rotational motion has been explored.1,2

[….]

Dynamic collimator motions in the age of modulated treatment deliveries were first introduced in the context of collimator rotation intensity-modulated radiotherapy (CR-IMRT), sometimes referred to as rotating aperture optimization (RAO).3–6

[….]

Webb7 first studied the potential benefits of dynamic collimator rotations from the point of view of minimizing patient dose that results from "parked" MLC leaves in the Elekta Beam Modulator system.

REFERENCE LIST

1. MacDonald RL, Christopher GT. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT. Med Phys. 2015;42:2317–2325.

2. Yang Y, Zhang P, Happersett L, et al. Choreographing couch and colli- mator in volumetric modulated arc therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1238–1247 .

3. Milette MP, Otto K. Maximizing the potential of direct aperture opti- mization through collimator rotation. Med Phys. 2007;34:1431–1438.

4. Otto K, inventor; BC Cancer Agency, assignee. Methods and apparatus for planning and delivering intensity modulated radiation fields with a rotating multileaf collimator. United States patent US 6,907,105; 2005.

5. Otto K, Milette MP, inventors; BC Cancer Agency, assignee. Method and apparatus for planning and delivering radiation treatment. United States patent US 7,734,010; 2010.

6. Siochi RA, inventor; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., assignee. High definition radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi- leaf collimator. United States patent US 6,757,355;2004.

7. Webb S. Does the option to rotate the Elekta beam modulator MLC during VMAT IMRT delivery confer advantage? a study of ‘parked gaps’. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:N303–N319.

Citation Managers + Zotero

What is a Citation Manager? 
A Citation Manager is simply a piece of software, website, or browser extension that can help you organize the papers you have used for research. It keeps track of the citations (so the author, title, date, etc) of each paper, and allows you to then plug each citation into your Reference List. Some of them even allow very specific citations styles for different disciplines (like AIP for physics) instead of the more common APA and MLA styles.

Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages. Zotero automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for.

Zotero has a Chrome Extension that allows easy addition of web content to your Zotero library.

More info on the button's functionality here.

The Zotero Style Repository allows you to import citation styles that might not be pre-loaded.

Popular citation styles in Physics: 

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