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PHYS 354: Medical Physics Principles: Physics Citations

Course guide for students in PHYS 354 to help with research into Medical Physics.

Medical Physics Citation Style

Citations should be done in the format style of the journal Medical Physics.

They provide examples on their Information for Authors page

Read a sample issue of the Medical Physics journal here.



The in-text reference that gives brief details (author, date, page) of the source you are quoting or referring to. This citation corresponds with the full details of the work (title, publisher, etc) given in your reference list or bibliography, so that the reader can identify and/or find the source. 

The Medical Physics style uses a numerical superscript in-text that corresponds to the Reference List.


A list of references at the end of your paper that includes the full information for your citations so that the reader can easily identify and retrieve each work (journal articles, books, webpages, etc).  Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from.

The Medical Physics style lists publications in the order they appeared in the text.


A list of works you have consulted for your paper, but not cited in the Reference List. Works should be listed in alphabetical order by author and laid out in the same way as items in your reference list. If you can cite from every work you consulted, you will only need a reference list. 

Always check the guidance you are given for your research paper to find out if you are expected to submit work with a reference list and a bibliography. 

Zotero Citation Manager

Zotero collects all your research in a single, searchable interface. You can add PDFs, images, audio and video files, snapshots of web pages, and automatically indexes the full-text content of your library, enabling you to find exactly what you're looking for. Zotero instantly creates references and bibliographies for any text editor, and directly inside Word, LibreOffice, and Google Docs and can (optionally) synchronize your data across devices, keeping your files, notes, and bibliographic records seamlessly up to date and can be accessed with any web browser. Zotero is open source and developed by an independent, nonprofit organization that has no financial interest in your private information. With Zotero, you always stay in control of your own data.

EndNote 20 Campus License


The Library has acquired an EndNote 20 license for the entire campus! EndNote 20 is a software tool used to manage citations and references when writing a paper. If you’re utilizing EndNote 7, 8 or 9, please consider upgrading to EndNote 20, as updates will no longer be made to prior versions.  

--How does it work? 

  • If you already have a previous subscription to EndNote and are looking to upgrade or are a new EndNote user, please go to our EndNote 20 webpage for more information and to download.

--EndNote 20 features

  • Seamless Organization - Stay organized with a reliable system that stores unlimited references and provides powerful tools to help organize and manage references with ease and speed.
  • Easy Collaboration - EndNote 20 offers flexible solutions for sharing that help everyone stay on the same page. Up to 100 people can work from a single reference library, no matter where they are located or what organization they are affiliated with.
  • 7,000+ Reference Styles - Researchers can automatically build their bibliography with EndNote’s Cite While You Write tool in Microsoft Word, with access to a library of more than 7,000 styles – more than any other reference tool – or customize their own style.

Please contact if you need any assistance or further clarification on how to upgrade or sign-up for EndNote 20. 


Quoted from Author Guidelines - Last Updated 8/15/2018

References should follow standard American Medical Association (AMA) Style. Do not alphabetize references; assign consecutive numbers as references are cited in the body of the text. Use superscript numbers for in-text citations. Provide the full reference list at the end of the text, using base-aligned numbers followed by a period. Full titles of articles, complete lists of authors, and inclusive pagination must be included. Do not use reference citation superscripts as parts of speech when discussing referenced material; this includes constructions such as " . . . in [5] . . . " or "Reference [10] states . . . ." References must be in the accessible, archival literature. “Private Communications” and commercial identifications and manuals are not appropriate for the reference list but can be identified as footnotes to the text. References should appear in the following formats from the AMA Manual of Style:

Journal article (1-6 authors):

1. Hu P, Reuben DB. Effects of managed care on the length of time that elderly patients spend with physicians during ambulatory visits. Med Care.2002;40(7):606-613.

Journal article with more than six authors:

1. Geller AC, Venna S, Prout M, et al. Should the skin cancer examination be taught in medical school?Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(9):1201-1203.

Journal article with no named author or group name:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Licensure of a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (Menveo) and guidance for use--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(9):273.

Electronic Journal article:
If you have a doi (preferred):
1. Gage BF, Fihn SD, White RH. Management and dosing of warfarin therapy. The American Journal of Medicine. 2000;109(6):481-488. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00545-3.

If you do not have a doi:
1. Aggleton JP. Understanding anterograde amnesia: disconnections and hidden lesions. Q J Exp Psychol. 2008;61(10):1441-1471. Accessed March 18, 2010.

Journal article published online ahead of print:

1. Chau NG, Haddad RI. Antiangiogenic agents in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: tired of going solo [published online ahead of print September 20, 2016]. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30352.

Entire Book:

1. McKenzie BC. Medicine and the Internet: Introducing Online Resources and Terminology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1997.

Book Chapter:

1. Guyton JL, Crockarell JR. Fractures of acetabulum and pelvis. In: Canale ST, ed. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, Inc; 2003:2939-2984.


American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. Accessed March 3, 2003.

  • If there are more than 6 author names in a reference, the first 3 author names are retained with “et al” (set in roman).
  • The article title is set in roman and sentence case.
  • The journal title is set in italics and abbreviated with a period at the end of the title only and not for all abbreviated terms.
  • A semicolon is used between the year of publication and the volume number.
  • A colon is used between the volume number and the page range.
  • The full page range is used. - Set a period at the end of a reference.
  • The place of publication is given first followed by publisher name.
  • The year of publication is given after the publisher name, separated by a semicolon.
  • The date of last access is required for Website citations.
  • The chapter title is set in roman and sentence case.
  • The book title is set in italics and title case.

A list of standard abbreviations for journal names appears in the AIP Style Manual. Additionally, potential authors can use software tools to format references correctly and abide by the Journal’s guidelines. Such a tool is Endnote, developed by Thomson Scientific, which can be accessed here. Authors are urged to exclude unnecessary and/or incomplete references.

Citation Examples


In-text citations are numerical references, in superscript1, numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text. The REFERENCES section orders publications in the order they appeared in the text. Titles of articles, complete lists of authors, and inclusive pagination must be included. References must be in the accessible, archival literature. Author first names are abbreviated, journal names are abbreviated,the journal title is italicized, and followed by year;volume:page-range. You can also find more American Institute of Physics (AIP) style examples from Monash University Library online.

Citation examples listed are from Dynamic collimator trajectory algorithm for multiple metastases dynamicconformal arc treatment planning by R. Lee MacDonald, Christopher G. Thomas, and Alasdair Syme. Demonstrated here for educational purposes only.


In previous research, the inclusion of couch rotational motion has been explored.1,2


Dynamic collimator motions in the age of modulated treatment deliveries were first introduced in the context of collimator rotation intensity-modulated radiotherapy (CR-IMRT), sometimes referred to as rotating aperture optimization (RAO).3–6


Webb7 first studied the potential benefits of dynamic collimator rotations from the point of view of minimizing patient dose that results from "parked" MLC leaves in the Elekta Beam Modulator system.


1. MacDonald RL, Christopher GT. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT. Med Phys. 2015;42:2317–2325.

2. Yang Y, Zhang P, Happersett L, et al. Choreographing couch and colli- mator in volumetric modulated arc therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1238–1247 .

3. Milette MP, Otto K. Maximizing the potential of direct aperture opti- mization through collimator rotation. Med Phys. 2007;34:1431–1438.

4. Otto K, inventor; BC Cancer Agency, assignee. Methods and apparatus for planning and delivering intensity modulated radiation fields with a rotating multileaf collimator. United States patent US 6,907,105; 2005.

5. Otto K, Milette MP, inventors; BC Cancer Agency, assignee. Method and apparatus for planning and delivering radiation treatment. United States patent US 7,734,010; 2010.

6. Siochi RA, inventor; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., assignee. High definition radiation treatment with an intensity modulating multi- leaf collimator. United States patent US 6,757,355;2004.

7. Webb S. Does the option to rotate the Elekta beam modulator MLC during VMAT IMRT delivery confer advantage? a study of ‘parked gaps’. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:N303–N319.

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